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A reflective space 反光空间

Martin Luther Church, Hainburg, Austria

Thursday 18 Aug 2011

From World Architecture News(原文来自World Architecture News)

Contemporary place of worship by Austrian practice replaces 17th century church

奥地利人设计的当代礼拜场所取代17世纪教堂

© Duccio Malagamba

Coop Himmelb(l)au have just released these stunning images of a small church in the modest Austrian town of Hainburg. With construction completed in less than a year, the project has moved incredibly swiftly, progressing from design to realisation in only three years.

Coop Himmelb(l)au刚刚发布了位于朴素的奥地利小镇Hainburg的小教堂的炫丽图片。此项目的运作是难以置信的迅速,施工在一年内完成,从设计到实现整个过程仅用了三年时间。

The number three plays a continuous part in this glossy religious scheme, a feature that the design studio refers to as ‘deliberate coincidence’. Taking three years to complete, the interior volumes are starkly lit by natural daylight which filters in through three large openings in the roof, correlating with the concept of The Trinity in Christian theology.

数字三在这个光彩夺目的宗教方案中扮演着一个连续的角色,也就是作为“故意的巧合”被设计工作室涉及的一个特征。用三年时间完成,自然光透过屋顶上三个巨大的开口把室内空间照得格外明亮,这些都与基督教神学理论的三位一体概念密切相关。

Interior spaces can also be divided into three sections: a sanctuary; the church hall; and supporting facilities. An open yet peaceful sanctuary leads through to a glass-covered children’s corner and baptistery, beyond which is situated the communal church hall. A set of folding doors separates the two areas however this can be drawn back to merge the volumes creating a continuous spatial sequence.

室内空间可以分成三个区域:圣殿、礼拜堂、设备用房。开放的宁静的圣殿连通到玻璃覆盖的儿童角和洗礼堂,再过去就是共用的礼拜堂。一排折叠门独立出两个空间,也可以收起折叠门把空间合并成连续的空间序列。

A similar approach has been used on the facade, which can be concertinaed back to open the internal space to the outside. At right angles to this is a longitudinal slab building along a small side alley, supporting the sacristy, the pastor’s office, a small kitchen and additional ancillary spaces.

立面也采用了同样的方法,折叠起来让室内空间向外打开。与这个立面直角相交处是一块沿着小巷一侧建设的纵向厚板,支撑着圣器收藏室、牧师办公室、小厨房和额外的辅助空间。

Rising above this metallic complex is a sculptural bell tower. Weighing a hefty 8 tonnes, the musical pillar soars to 20m in height and makes the church highly recognisable from a great distance. In assembling the building Coop Himmelb(l)au utilised the appropriate technologies and skills of a shipyard on the Baltic Sea, explaining: “The reference to shipbuilding is at the same time also reminiscent of Le Corbusier who served as an important role model, not least because of his La Tourette monastery.”

高过这些金属般的建筑群的是雕塑般的钟楼。重达8吨,高达20米的音乐般优美的柱子使教堂在很远的地方都具有高度可识别性。在装配建筑的时候,Coop Himmelb(l)au运用了适当的技术和波罗的海上船坞的技巧,他解释道“对造船的参考,同时引起了对作为重要榜样的柯布西埃的回忆,至少因为他的拉图雷特修道院。”

Layers of steel have been built up over suspended frames before being welded together onsite, and range between 8mm and 16mm in thickness throughout. The bell tower is a vertical self-supporting steel structure whereas the roof construction of the remainder of the building rests on four steel columns (compared by the architects to the ‘legs of a table’).

在现场焊接在一起之前,各层钢先安装在悬吊框架上,总体厚度控制在8毫米至16毫米之间。钟楼是一个垂直的自支撑钢结构,而建筑其余部分的屋顶构造就撑在四根钢柱上(建筑师把这比喻成“桌腿”)。

Coop Himmelb(l)au

© Duccio Malagamba

© Duccio Malagamba

© Duccio Malagamba

© Markus Pillhofer

© Duccio Malagamba

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No place to hide 没有给皮的地方

Rawhide: The New Shingle Style, Jason Payne/Hirsuta, Los Angeles, United States

Friday 19 Aug 2011

Original from World Architecture News(原文出自World Architecture News)

Jason Payne replicates curled Raspberry Fields roof system for SCI-Arc exhibition

Jason Payne 为南加州建筑学院展览会再造卷曲的山莓场地屋顶系统

All images courtesy of Joshua White

Los Angeles-based architect Jason Payne is recognised for his highly inventive and exploratory forms, classically showcased in 2010 project Raspberry Fields, a textured residential build in northern Utah. In this modest scheme, Payne – and his boutique architectural practice Hirsuta – encased the building in shingles which have curled drastically over the years in response to the freeze-thaw nature of the local climate.

洛杉矶建筑师Jason Payne因其2010年的一个位于犹他州北部的有质感的住宅项目“山莓场地”经典性地展示了他的极具创意性和探索性的形式而闻名。在这个不太显眼的方案中,Payne和他的精品建筑实践Hirsuta用彻底卷曲了的木瓦包住建筑物,这些木瓦是在当地气候的冻融自然条件下经过几年而形成的。

This abundance of twisted wooden shingles has been perfectly replicated in part for an exhibition at the Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc). Payne and Hirsuta have recreated the roof of Raspberry Fields at 1:1 scale which will form the centerpiece of the gallery exhibition Rawhide until 11th September 2011.

在南加州建筑学院的展览会,大量的弯曲木瓦已经被部分地完美再造。Payne和Hirsuta已经以1:1的比例再创造了山莓场地屋顶,这将会形成Rawhide展览会的画廊中心装饰品,展览将持续到2011年9月11日。

An exploration into the relationship between a building’s ‘skin’ and an animal’s ‘hide’ forms the basis of this display piece, the mass of curling shingles presented as an architectural representation of a beast’s pelt. This theme has been continued into the surrounding space, where real cowhides grace the room ‘refigured as abstract bodies’.

建筑“表皮”和动物的“皮”之间关系的探索性成了这个显示块的基础,大量的卷曲木瓦呈现出动物皮毛的建筑表现。这个主题在周边空间中被延续,真牛皮美化了“作为抽象躯体而重塑”房间。

In order to achieve the desired look and feel of the roof – a weathered coiling of the wooden protrusions which would take years in a natural environment – Payne steam-curled the coat of cedar shingles, encouraging it to ‘take on the quality of an animal hide par excellence, moving architectural cladding toward something more wild and feral…the becoming animal of architecture’.

为了达到渴望的屋顶外观和感觉——原本需要在自然环境中放几年才能形成的天然弯曲的外露木——Payne把雪松木的外部蒸成卷曲,促进其成为“穿上最好的动物毛皮的特质,将建筑保护层转向一些更野性的东西……建筑正在变成动物”。

     

Potent Antibodies Offer New AIDS Vaccine Design 强效抗体提供新的爱滋病疫苗设计

Originated by VOA Standard English, 原文出自VOA Standard English

Joe DeCapua
August 17, 2011

Researchers say powerful antibodies may hold clues to developing an effective AIDS vaccine. The antibodies were isolated from individuals already infected with HIV.

研究人员说强效的抗体可能有开发有效的爱滋病疫苗的线索。这些抗体是从感染了HIV病毒的个体上分离出来。

Dr. Wayne Koff says the goal is to find a vaccine that will help the immune system fend off an HIV infection.

Dr. Wayne Koff指出目标是要找出疫苗来帮助免疫系统抵抗HIV病毒感染。

“Most vaccines work in terms of stimulating something known as antibody, which is a protein substance in the body. And they work because the antibody identifies the site on the virus. And it can attach onto the virus and kill it,” he said.

“许多疫苗是以促进抗体的方式工作,抗体是身体上的一种蛋白物质。这些疫苗能起作用是因为抗体能在病毒上识别出位置。同时抗体能附着在病毒上并杀死病毒,”他说。

Koff, chief scientific officer for IAVI, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, said the problem with HIV is that it’s a hyper-variable virus.

IAVI(国际爱滋病疫苗倡议组织)首席科学官Koff,说HIV病毒的问题是它是一种超级多变的病毒。

That means it’s different all over the world. And so instead of a single strain or a couple of strains, we have millions of strains. And as a result, for a vaccine, instead of eliciting a neutralizing antibody, what one is attempting to do is to identify where the vulnerable sites on the virus that are the same on every virus particle. And these antibodies then are known as broadly neutralizing antibodies. So if you’re exposed to a virus on one side of the globe, they would work just as well as if you’re exposed in some other region of the world.

也就是说它在全球上都是不同的。我们面对的不是单一类型,也不是几个类型,而是好几百万个类型。于是乎,一种疫苗不再是用来引出一种中和性抗体,而是尝试去识别出病毒上脆弱的地方,这对于每一个病毒微粒来说是一样的。同时这些抗体被认为是广泛的中和性抗体。所以如果你在地球的一边遭受了一种病毒,疫苗的作用会跟你在地球上其他地方遭受病毒时一样的。

HIV becomes hyper-variable when it replicates. Each time, it’s just a little bit different. Some scientists call these changes minor errors, but it’s enough to confound the human immune system. The changes occur in the outer protein of the virus, the target of neutralizing antibodies. In other words, the weak spot.

当HIV病毒自我复制时会变得超级多变。对于每一次的自我复制,这只是一点点的不同。一些科学家称这些改变为轻微差错,但是这已足够击败免疫系统。这些改变发生在病毒的外蛋白质上,也就是中和抗体的目标。换句话说,这就是弱点。

Only a few have them

仅有一些有它们

The 17 antibodies that were isolated came from people infected with HIV.

17种被分离出来的抗体来自于感染了HIV病毒的人群。

Koff said, “We screened about 1,800 people. About one percent of the individuals had extremely broad and potent neutralizing antibodies against HIV. We then went back to these individuals and we took additional samples of blood and from those individuals we identified these broadly neutralizing antibodies.”

Koff说:“我们检查了大约1800人。大约1%有极度广泛和强效的中和性抗体来对抗HIV病毒。之后我们回到这些个体,提取额外的血液样品,从这些个体我们识别出这些广泛的中和性抗体。”

Did the people who produced these antibodies do better at fighting HIV? No, they didn’t.

产生这些抗体的人能更好地对抗HIV病毒吗?不,他们不能。

“Most people would think if one has broadly neutralizing antibodies after HIV infection there should be a benefit. And that is not the case. In the case of individuals that are already HIV infected, the virus is always one step in front of the immune system,” he said.

“很多人会认为,如果一个人在感染HIV病毒后有广泛的中和性抗体,那么这应该是一个好处。而事实并不是这样。在这些已经感染了HIV病毒的个体案例中,病毒总是在免疫系统前一步。”他说。

But the immune system could react differently if it had these antibodies before infection.

但是,如果免疫系统在感染之前就拥有这些抗体,它会作出不同的反应。

“The real challenge for us and from a vaccine point of view is to ensure that the immune system is primed in advance of the virus as opposed to after HIV infection. It remains to be seen if these antibodies will have any therapeutic benefit,” he said.

“对于我们来说的真正挑战和从疫苗的角度来说,是要确保免疫系统在病毒之前准备好才能在HIV病毒感染后进行抵抗。这些抗体仍然被认为将来会有某些治疗的好处,”他说。

Now what?

现在做什么?

The next step is animal studies. The antibodies will be given to chimpanzees to see whether they can block an HIV-like virus. Koff says initial vaccine candidates will probably be ready in three or four years.

下一步就是动物研究。这些抗体将会给到黑猩猩,然后观察它们是否能够阻止一种类HIV病毒。Koff说首批申请人大概在三到四年内可以使用。

The antibody research is outlined in an article in Nature magazine. It was funded by IAVI, The Scripps Research Institute, Theraclone Sciences and Monogram Biosciences, Incorporated.

抗体研究在Nature杂志上有描述。

Kickoff!!!

Lots of things will be done. But no plan, no goal, no will and I don’t know.

Bring up my super idea while killing myself.

Hope it worked.

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