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Architecture’s perfect storm… 建筑完美风暴……

August 21, 2011

Why don’t our workspaces work?, London, United Kingdom

Monday 15 Aug 2011

Origin from WAN(原文来自WAN)

Dismay for British Architecture as Foster defends London Icon: “Gherkin was not a disaster…”

大家对英国建筑感到灰心,因为福斯特为伦敦地标辩护:“小黄瓜不是灾难……”

UK architecture came under fire on UK TV this week when Norman Foster was asked by Channel 4 presenter, Tom Dyckhoff to explain why the innovative ideas he had pioneered in the Willis Building (Ipswich 1975) seemed to have been lost in London’s Gherkin some thirty years on. If a picture can paint a thousand words, Lord Foster’s expression on being asked this question in front of the TV cameras seemed to generate at least a thousand expletives.

本周英国电视台上英国建筑遭遇激烈讨论,Channel 4节目主持人Tom Dyckhoff要求诺曼·福斯特解释,为什么他在威利斯大厦(1975年伊普斯维奇)的设计中所倡导的革新主意,在伦敦小黄瓜身上,看上去像慢了大约三十年。如果一幅画能够表达千言万语,那么在电视摄影机前,福斯特勋爵在这个问题上的表达看上去像产生了成千上万的感叹。

It was a perfect twist in the long running saga of the ownership battle for the credit of London’s flagship tower, between Foster whose firm designed the building and team member Ken Shuttleworth who produced the original concepts and subsequently left the firm in 2003. The feud was re-ignited in 2004 when the building was awarded the Stirling Prize, the UK’s most prestigious architectural prize.

在福斯特(他的公司设计了这幢大厦)和团队成员Ken Shuttleworth(设计了概念雏形,随后于2003年离开了公司)之间,为了伦敦旗舰级大楼信誉的所有权,展开了完全扭曲的长跑式争论。在2004年斯特林奖(英国最有声望的建筑大奖)颁发到这栋建筑的时候,这段争吵再次引发。

For nearly a decade, both parties had been claiming the accolades, when out of the blue the jewel in London’s architectural crown came under fire for having a bland and unimaginative working environment, it landed squarely back in Lord Fosters’ lap. Clearly caught on the hop, he defended the interior space with a, “well it’s not a disaster…”

差不多十年时间内,双方都一直表示称赞,同时意外地伦敦建筑皇冠上的宝石因为乏味和缺乏创意的工作环境而遭受攻击,它正好落在了福斯特勋爵的大腿上。明显地措手不及,他以“这不是一场灾难……”来为室内空间辩护。

They say it’s tough at the top and when you have built an empire as successful as Foster and Partners, detractors can be found on every street corner and many of these would have relished at seeing Lord Foster taking the heat on mainstream TV.

他们说在顶端是艰难的,当你建立了一个像Foster and Partners一样成功的帝国的时候,到处都能找到恶意批评者,大部分恶意批评者享受着观看福斯特勋爵在主流电视上备受质疑。

It was a killer question, both hugely important in the wider context of effective office environments but also grossly unfair for at least two reasons, one, it assumed today’s architect has free reign over their designs and commercially driven clients and two, the Willis Building was designed for one client whereas the Gherkin was multi-tenancy.

这是一个极难的问题,在更广泛的有效办公环境的文脉中两个都极度重要,而且至少有两个理由证明其极度不公平。一,它假设今天的建筑师已经对自己的设计有自由控制权,并且能商业化的操纵客户;二,威利斯大厦是为一个客户设计的,而小黄瓜是有多方租赁的。

Dyckhoff’s charge was that architects today are only interested in glamorous exteriors and ignore the internal working environment. Both are true to some extent but for good reason; the remit behind most new office buildings today are not developed to create a productive environment, the brief is all about maximising floor space, value engineering, commercial returns… creating an icon increases a building’s value. Fact. The interior is ultimately expressed in square metres.

Dyckhoff的指责是,今天,建筑师仅仅注重于华丽的外表,而忽略了内部的工作环境。在某程度上是正确的,但需要好的理由;今天,大多数办公建筑背后的职权范围并没有发展到能创造一种高效的环境。简单来说,所有关于楼层空间最大化、价值工程、商业回报等等这一切都是在创造一个徽标来提升建筑物的价值。事实就是这样。室内被最终表达在数平方米内。

Dyckhoff’s dismay was evident when he mused: “If the likes of Norman Foster cannot influence the direction of office design, what hope anyone else?”

Dyckhoof自言自语道:“如果像诺曼·福斯特这样的人都不能影响到办公室设计的方向,那么还指望谁呢?”他的诧异是明显的。

Who better to ask than Make? Katy Ghahremani and Tracey Wiles, Partners at Make; ” There is a growing awareness within the UK design community of the development of the role of the workplace in our society, moving away from the monotone, one-size fits all trend of the early 90s towards more inspiring, task-oriented ‘club’ type environments where users are provided with a diversity of spaces which support their specific tasks. Educating clients in this new thinking is a key part of the designer’s role. However, this relies on the designer working with the end-user rather than with a speculative developer. How can we create environments to support key activities when we don’t know who the users are and what those activities might be?”

谁比Make(建筑师事务所)更适合去问?Katy Ghahremani和Tracey Wiles(Make的合伙人);“在我们的社会中,对工作场所这个角色的发展的英国设计社区的意识不断提高,逐渐远离单调,九十年代初期的一个尺寸满足一切的趋势,转向更激发灵感的、任务导向型的“俱乐部”模式环境,提供给使用者一个多样的空间,支持他们特定的任务。在这个新的想法中教育客户是设计师角色中的重要一部分。然而这有赖于设计师与终端用户一起工作,而不是投机的开发商。在我们不清楚用户是谁和可能的活动是什么的时候,如何去创造一个支持主要活动的环境。”

But if architects’ hands are tied and clients are not motivated to push the boundaries (show me the money) who is? Richard Kauntze, Chief Executive, British Council for Offices gave his reaction to WAN: “In recent years we’ve seen a growing trend for organisations to reconfigure the functionality of their work spaces.

但如果建筑师的手被绑住,客户也不积极地去突破(给我展示其价值),究竟谁是?Richard Kauntze(英国办公室委员会首席执行者)给了WAN这样的回应:“在最近几年,我们发现组织重新设定其办公空间设计功能的趋势在增长。”

“One of the BCO’s primary objectives is to define excellence in office space, which we do through our annual Awards programme. Through this we have a clear snapshot of how office fit-outs in the UK are constantly evolving to provide tangible benefits in terms of the well-being and productivity of the workforce. Past winners such as PwC’s fit-out in Glasgow, Microsoft Building 5 in Reading, or Kings Place in London, have all demonstrated innovation in delivering workplaces which have in some cases transformed the way these occupiers do business.”

“BCO(英国办公室委员会)的一个主要目的是通过年度嘉奖项目的方式定义办公空间的优秀。透过这个项目,我们有了一个清晰的画面,关于英国的办公室设备是如何不断演变至用劳动力的康乐和生产效率的方式来提供实际的好处。过去的获奖者,如位于Glasgow的普华永道的设备、位于Reading微软大楼5号、或者位于伦敦的Kings Place(艺术文化中心),都在交付工作场所时展示了革新,这些工作场所有时改变了这些拥有者做生意的方式。”

What is increasingly apparent is that buildings have a direct influence on the humans who live and work in them, and maybe architects have instinctively understood this relationship but just as an engineer must know the breaking point of steel to design a cost effective structure, so the modern architect should be armed with quantifiable data on the effects of spacial changes, human interaction, clustering, light, colour, acoustics and so on to be able to design an effective working space.

越来越明显的是建筑物对在其里面生活和工作的人有直接影响,可能建筑师已经本能地认识到这个关系,但是正因为作为一名工程师必须认识到设计一个节约成本的结构时钢的脆点,所以现代建筑师应该用关于空间转变、人的互动、集群、光、颜色、声学等等的影响的可计量数据武装起来,才能设出有效的工作空间。

Striving towards this end, Gensler created a Workplace Performance Index to help their clients understand specifically what comprises space effectiveness in their workplaces so that design solutions can be highly targeted. (read full article)

往这个方向努力下去,Gensler创造了一个工作场所表现指数来帮助他们的客户具体领会在他们工作场所中什么构成了空间的有效性,这样使得设计方案具有极高的目的性。

The irony of this issue is that creating a more effective workplace may not actually cost any more to construct and would certainly add to a building’s value if a standard method of measurement could be adopted.

这个问题的讽刺之处是,如果一个标准的测量方法被采用,创造一个更高效的工作空间可能实际上在建造上花费不会更多,而且会肯定增加一幢建筑的价值。

What is extraordinary is that in this world dominated by offices, you are probably reading this in one, this connected world of data overload and real-time analysis there is no central repository of evidence readily available to architects from which they can build on.

特别之处是,在这个被办公楼支配的世界上,你可能一次就理解了这个,这个连接了过量数据的世界和那里实时分析的是建筑师从他们可以依赖的基础上轻而易举获得的证据的无中心贮藏室。

Michael Hammond

Editor in Chief at WAN

翻译:George Lam

FYI(the following infomation is came from Wikipedia)

Make Architects is an architectural practice based in the United Kingdom founded by Ken Shuttleworth after he left Foster and Partners in 2003. They have offices in London, Birmingham, Beijing, Abu Dhabi and Dubai and the practice is currently engaged in projects worldwide ranging from high rise offices to urban masterplans, residential and office developments, civic buildings, private and social housing, education buildings and interior design.

BDP

British Council for Offices

PwC 普华永道(officially PricewaterhouseCoopers) is a global professional services firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom.It is the world’s second-largest professional services firm (after Deloitte) and one of the “Big Four” accountancy firms.

It has offices in 757 cities across 154 countries and employs over 175,000 people. It had total revenues of $26.6 billion in 2010, of which $13 billion was generated by its Assurance practice, $7 billion by its Tax practice and $6 billion by its Advisory practice.

The firm was formed in 1998 by a merger between Price Waterhouse and Coopers & Lybrand.The trading name was shortened to PwC in September 2010 as part of a major rebranding exercise.

As of 2010 it was the seventh-largest privately-owned organisation in the United States.

伦敦艺术文化中心 Kings Placeis a building in London’s Kings Cross area, providing music and visual arts venues combined with seven floors of office space, now home to The Guardian newspaper and the headquarters of Network Rail. Kings Place is also the London base office of Logica, the global IT and management consultancy company.

Gensler  美国第二大建筑事务所

Gensler is a global design and architecture firm headquartered in San Francisco with offices in New York, Los Angeles, Washington, Chicago, London, Dubai, Shanghai and other cities. The firm was founded by Art Gensler, James Follett, and Drue Gensler in 1965 originally focusing on corporate interiors. Gensler is credited for establishing the profession of corporate office design as distinct from the practice of architecture and interior design.

Today, Gensler is the second largest architecture firm in the United States. In October 2008 it had employed almost 3,300 people in 34 offices worldwide. Due to the economic downturn started in October 2008, the number of employees fell to 2,100 in 2009 and stands today at 2,300.

The firm specializes in multiple practices including: commercial office buildings, workplace, retail, airports, hospitality, education, mixed-use & entertainment, planning and urban design, brand strategy, environmental graphic design, mission critical facilities,sustainable design consulting, sports and others.

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