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Potent Antibodies Offer New AIDS Vaccine Design 强效抗体提供新的爱滋病疫苗设计

August 19, 2011

Originated by VOA Standard English, 原文出自VOA Standard English

Joe DeCapua
August 17, 2011

Researchers say powerful antibodies may hold clues to developing an effective AIDS vaccine. The antibodies were isolated from individuals already infected with HIV.

研究人员说强效的抗体可能有开发有效的爱滋病疫苗的线索。这些抗体是从感染了HIV病毒的个体上分离出来。

Dr. Wayne Koff says the goal is to find a vaccine that will help the immune system fend off an HIV infection.

Dr. Wayne Koff指出目标是要找出疫苗来帮助免疫系统抵抗HIV病毒感染。

“Most vaccines work in terms of stimulating something known as antibody, which is a protein substance in the body. And they work because the antibody identifies the site on the virus. And it can attach onto the virus and kill it,” he said.

“许多疫苗是以促进抗体的方式工作,抗体是身体上的一种蛋白物质。这些疫苗能起作用是因为抗体能在病毒上识别出位置。同时抗体能附着在病毒上并杀死病毒,”他说。

Koff, chief scientific officer for IAVI, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, said the problem with HIV is that it’s a hyper-variable virus.

IAVI(国际爱滋病疫苗倡议组织)首席科学官Koff,说HIV病毒的问题是它是一种超级多变的病毒。

That means it’s different all over the world. And so instead of a single strain or a couple of strains, we have millions of strains. And as a result, for a vaccine, instead of eliciting a neutralizing antibody, what one is attempting to do is to identify where the vulnerable sites on the virus that are the same on every virus particle. And these antibodies then are known as broadly neutralizing antibodies. So if you’re exposed to a virus on one side of the globe, they would work just as well as if you’re exposed in some other region of the world.

也就是说它在全球上都是不同的。我们面对的不是单一类型,也不是几个类型,而是好几百万个类型。于是乎,一种疫苗不再是用来引出一种中和性抗体,而是尝试去识别出病毒上脆弱的地方,这对于每一个病毒微粒来说是一样的。同时这些抗体被认为是广泛的中和性抗体。所以如果你在地球的一边遭受了一种病毒,疫苗的作用会跟你在地球上其他地方遭受病毒时一样的。

HIV becomes hyper-variable when it replicates. Each time, it’s just a little bit different. Some scientists call these changes minor errors, but it’s enough to confound the human immune system. The changes occur in the outer protein of the virus, the target of neutralizing antibodies. In other words, the weak spot.

当HIV病毒自我复制时会变得超级多变。对于每一次的自我复制,这只是一点点的不同。一些科学家称这些改变为轻微差错,但是这已足够击败免疫系统。这些改变发生在病毒的外蛋白质上,也就是中和抗体的目标。换句话说,这就是弱点。

Only a few have them

仅有一些有它们

The 17 antibodies that were isolated came from people infected with HIV.

17种被分离出来的抗体来自于感染了HIV病毒的人群。

Koff said, “We screened about 1,800 people. About one percent of the individuals had extremely broad and potent neutralizing antibodies against HIV. We then went back to these individuals and we took additional samples of blood and from those individuals we identified these broadly neutralizing antibodies.”

Koff说:“我们检查了大约1800人。大约1%有极度广泛和强效的中和性抗体来对抗HIV病毒。之后我们回到这些个体,提取额外的血液样品,从这些个体我们识别出这些广泛的中和性抗体。”

Did the people who produced these antibodies do better at fighting HIV? No, they didn’t.

产生这些抗体的人能更好地对抗HIV病毒吗?不,他们不能。

“Most people would think if one has broadly neutralizing antibodies after HIV infection there should be a benefit. And that is not the case. In the case of individuals that are already HIV infected, the virus is always one step in front of the immune system,” he said.

“很多人会认为,如果一个人在感染HIV病毒后有广泛的中和性抗体,那么这应该是一个好处。而事实并不是这样。在这些已经感染了HIV病毒的个体案例中,病毒总是在免疫系统前一步。”他说。

But the immune system could react differently if it had these antibodies before infection.

但是,如果免疫系统在感染之前就拥有这些抗体,它会作出不同的反应。

“The real challenge for us and from a vaccine point of view is to ensure that the immune system is primed in advance of the virus as opposed to after HIV infection. It remains to be seen if these antibodies will have any therapeutic benefit,” he said.

“对于我们来说的真正挑战和从疫苗的角度来说,是要确保免疫系统在病毒之前准备好才能在HIV病毒感染后进行抵抗。这些抗体仍然被认为将来会有某些治疗的好处,”他说。

Now what?

现在做什么?

The next step is animal studies. The antibodies will be given to chimpanzees to see whether they can block an HIV-like virus. Koff says initial vaccine candidates will probably be ready in three or four years.

下一步就是动物研究。这些抗体将会给到黑猩猩,然后观察它们是否能够阻止一种类HIV病毒。Koff说首批申请人大概在三到四年内可以使用。

The antibody research is outlined in an article in Nature magazine. It was funded by IAVI, The Scripps Research Institute, Theraclone Sciences and Monogram Biosciences, Incorporated.

抗体研究在Nature杂志上有描述。

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